Chemical dating in archaeology
The fluoride selective electrode uses the same principle as the familiar p H electrode.
When the electrode is placed in a solution that contains fluoride, it produces a voltage that is proportional to the amount of fluoride in the solution.
The requirement of identical burial conditions means that fluoride dating works best when it is applied within a single site with little variation in soil chemistry.
Many different techniques can be used to measure bone fluoride content, but measurement by ion selective electrode is the easiest and simplest method available today.
Therefore, it is rarely possible to mix results from skeletal elements with widely differing densities (i.e., femur cortical bone versus vertebral fragments), or to compare juveniles with adults, or to compare bones from very large or very small mammals.A desciption of the method is given in: Schurr, Mark R.1989.
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Murders in the city first peaked in 1974, with 970 murders when the city's population was over three million, resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000, and again in 1992, with 943 murders when the city had fewer than three million people, resulting in a murder rate of 34 murders per 100,000 citizens.… continue reading »