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At the Unokiminami site, the impressed cord mark (Oatsu Jomon) is the main pottery type, including Nail-impressed. Stable isotope and elemental analyses were used to ascertain the origin of charred residues on the pottery.In the data set of Jomon pottery of the oldest type, residues consisting only of cooked nuts were found.They occur in in the main chemical components of rain and air that are taken up by plants (the important ones to us are oxygen, hydrogen and carbon).Oxygen, for example, has three different stable isotopes known as oxygen-16, oxygen-17 and oxygen-18.
Experts can compare the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in dead material to the ratio when the organism was alive to estimate the date of its death.We’ve also described how many of these bogs are covered in Sphagnum mosses.Now, these mosses are very simple plants – they have no stomata and so are unable to regulate water uptake and loss.The pitted decoration (Enkomon), Nail-impressed (Tsumegatamon), and pressing and dragging (Oshibikimon) types date to 13,800–12,400 cal BP.
For pottery of the same type, differences among sites were large.
Rain that falls on the surface of the bog is taken up by these plants and incorporated into their tissues very quickly.